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Controversial Role of Marine Protected Areas in Fisheries Management Essay Marine protected areas (MPA) refer to the zones in which human activity has been placed under some restrictions for protection and restoration of the natural environment, its surrounding waters and the occupant ecosystems, and any cultural or historical resources that may require preservation or management. They play a dominant role in protecting marine biodiversity, ecosystem function and sustaining healthy coastal communities. MPA is relevant to biodiversity and scale, legal and compliance, and socio-culture (IUCN amp; UNEP-WCMC, 2010). It is a site-scale unit that is essential for conservation of marine biodiversity and maintenance of productivity of oceans. Also, the protection of MPA is integrated into various policies and environmental safeguards of international financial institutions. Besides, MPAs are recognized as traditional practices, cultural values, rights and involvement of local/indigenous communities in protection, use and management. This essay focuses on controversy surrounding MPAs. It discusses the direct benefits of marine protected areas, followed by the reasons why commercial and recreational fishers are against the designation of MPAs. Last, it proceeds with a personal judgement on the role and relevance of marine reserves with the case of Phoenix Islands Protected Area. Section 2 Marine protected areas have brought a number of direct benefits in terms of biological diversity, fisheries, science, recreation and tourism, and education. * Biological diversity MPA mitigate or even avoid risks of diversity loss by providing refuges for species and protects their habitats that support their livelihood without human disturbance. It also facilitates the protection of unique, endemic, rare, and threatened species over a fragmented habitat (Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2011). * Fisheries MPAs have improved fish catch and led to stable catch levels. The species are able to spawn or to produce eggs and grow to adults in â€˜no-takeâ€™ reserves. Also, increasing abundance moves to neighboring areas resulting from the spillover effect. The migration contributes to productive stocks adjacent to marine protected areas. * Science MPAs have created undisturbed locations free from exploited uses for scientific studies with enormous research potential. Fishery biologists believe that protected zones can be used as controls to monitor and study the recovery of fish populations (Sanchirico 2000). * Recreation amp; tourism Well managed marine protected areas have attracted thousands of visitors to view abundant marine life from observatories, with glass-bottomed boats, by snorkeling or scuba diving (Kenchington, Ward amp; Hegerl, 2003). The establishment of marine reserves opens new opportunities for local economy as tourist attractions. * Education The protected zones offer people opportunities to observe undisturbed marine species. They pass on the values of MPAs to the community with understanding and demand for sustainable management of their marine environments (Kenchington, Ward amp; Hegerl, 2003). Section 3 Marine protected areas are used as a tool for fisheries management. These areas have brought both benefits and costs to fisheries management. On one hand, the closed areas offer a hedge against management errors by improving the long term management of fisheries. On the other hand, they raise management costs of additional monitoring and enforcement, or even utilization of new technology. However, there remain some management uncertainties. The long run success of MPAs is uncertain in controlling effort because fishers internalize the social cost of their activities and concentration of fishing effort moves to unprotected areas. Moreover, the openness of marine environments and the susceptibility to broad oceanographic shocks make the protected zones likely to be responsive to external factors (Sanchirico 2000). Lack of enforcement and monitoring of these areas will also call into doubt that they are effective hedges. Additionally, the overall impact is unclear with few empirical results on the protected areas and unprotected. Because of uncertain fisheries management, commercial and recreational fishers often do not support the designation of marine protected areas. For one reason, fishers are sometimes displaced from their traditional fishing grounds to the remaining non-protected areas. The congestion effect generates conflict between users of the resource affecting both the displaced trawler and the fixed-gear fishermen. Also, displaced fishers have to spend additional time and effort learning about stock concentrations and oceanographic conditions that exist in the remaining areas (Sanchirico, Cochran, amp; Emerson 2002). More importantly, the designation forces fishermen to venture out to more distant waters leading to potential occupational risks. For another reason, transport costs and capital costs are increased. More fuel and time are spent on searching fish, and equipment and devices should be purchased. Section 4 The Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA) was established in 2008, located in the Republic of Kiribati (Wikipedia 2013). It is the largest marine protected area (MPA) in the Pacific Ocean with an area of 408,250 km2. PIPA offers natural habitat for both marine and terrestrial biodiversity, especially for coral reefs and green turtles. It has protected the indigenous natural heritage from human disturbance as well as restored the islands for terrestrial species. Marine protected areas contribute to maintenance of biological diversity, healthy ecosystem and the promising future for the coming generations. These areas are beneficial beyond fisheries and marine ecosystem. They support scientific research, serve as tourist destinations with rising incomes for the local and educate people with their values. The protected zones provide both natural and cultural values. Furthermore, the ocean is correlated with the land and the air. MPAs affect the land and the air indirectly but significantly because the three elements are in the natural cycle. Thus, only with well management of the areas will they bring the most benefits to the humans to the great extent. Section 5 1. Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2011, Government of Canada, viewed 16 May 2013, lt; http://www. dfo-mpo. gc. ca/oceans/publications/dmpaf-eczpm/framework-cadre2011-eng. asp#c7gt;. 2. Kenchington, R, Ward, T amp; Hegerl, E 2003, Commonwealth of Australia, viewed 16 May 2013, lt; http://www. environment. gov. au/coasts/mpa/publications/pubs/benefits-mpas. dfgt;. 3. IUCN amp; UNEP-WCMC 2010, UNEP amp; WCMC, viewed 16 May 2013, lt; http://www. biodiversitya-z. org/areas/46#topgt;. 4. Sanchirico, JN 2000, Resources for the Future, viewed 16 May 2013, lt; http://www. rff. org/Documents/RFF-DP-00-23-REV. pdfgt;. 5. Sanchirico, JN, Cochran, KA amp; Emerson, PM 2002, Resources for the Future, viewed 17 May 2013, lt; http://www. cbd. int/doc/case-studies/inc/cs-inc-rf-04-en. pdfgt;. 6. Wikipedia 2013, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , viewed 17 May 2013, lt;http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Phoenix_Islands_Protected_Area#Natural_heritagegt;.
Journal Entry - Essay Example
As a result, I lost meaningful friendships owing to barriers in communication that developed from the arguments.
Previously, I had no strategy on how to handle a conflict. In the main, it is essential to uphold the principle of fairness, in which one admits a mistake when wrong and argues with a nonbiased mind. My biased arguments previously leaned on my point of view. In addition, as an introvert, I had difficulties maintaining friendships and hence I was not concerned about the outcome of a negotiation process and it effect on interpersonal relationships. However, it is essential to maintain a relationship with others and ensure that friendship continues after a negotiation process. Negotiation seeks to benefit both parties in the argument, and a resolution must favor all those involved in the process.
At the end of the semester, I developed a different approach to negotiations. I have changed my approach to negotiation from an assertive approach in which I seek to satisfy my individual needs, to cooperativeness, which intends to satisfy the interests of others. I learnt the need for a structured approach to negotiation, which has so far proven successful in several cases that I have encountered in the course of the semester. The main aim of negotiation, as I have learnt, is to negotiate towards a Win-Win outcome in which both parties become satisfied. This involves a process of preparation and discussion, in which we discuss all issues and identify the main cause of the conflict. Preparation involves naming the parties involved, including witnesses to the conflict. Third parties/witnesses are invaluable in any negotiation forum because they always present an unbiased view to an argument. In addition, I have learnt the need to have a time-scale for a negotiation process to ensure that all issues are resolved in a timely manner.
I have also gained skills in negotiation in the discussion process. In particular, I have
Entrepreneurial Risk Traits and the Ability to Manage Uncertainties - Essay Example
As the owner of the business, an entrepreneur is also perceived as a risk taker. This is because all the decisions pertaining to the success or failure of the business lies with him. Despite this revelation, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor in 2006 reported that many people in the UK are risk averse, with more than two-thirds of respondents revealing so. As many of businesses fail, such fears are well placed. Many businesses fail due to a number of reasons among them being lack of finance, poor infrastructure, shortage of skills and complexity of regulations or the red tape among others (Storey 1994, p.5-9). Nevertheless, the ability to evaluate the uncertainties and risks that are integral part of all businesses decisions is a vital element of successful entrepreneurship. For this to be accomplished, entrepreneurs must do their research properly to ensure that all reasonable steps are taken to mitigate any potential failure. This is because, the outcome of a successful risk taking result into a profitable venture (Timmons 1999, p.15-22). The objective of this paper is to explore how the entrepreneurial trait of risk taking and the ability to cope with uncertainty may impact the operating environment of a small business. ...
Because of these risks and uncertainties, small business entrepreneurs live in fear of failing to accomplish their goals of business success. It is, therefore, imperative that small business entrepreneurs must be vigilant to ensure that they do not plunge into the â€˜pit holesâ€™ of the business. Business expansion for instance comes with many challenges most of which comes as a result of lack of knowledge of new locations, and lack of the ability of manage large strategic, structural, technological and the human resource and the constrain of monetary base as well according to Rae (2007, p.10). Expanding the size of the business implies that more employees are required; more capital is also needed as well as the challenges of coping under the new business environment. Some of the risks and uncertainties that an entrepreneur must be aware of and device proper ways to manage them for the success of the business include: Financial constraints Entrepreneurs are definitely faced by the risk of inadequate finance especially when trying to expand their business venture. This is because no single business can be expanded without the need of more capital investment. Since the business is small, it may not be at a position to provide the more capital outlay required to meet all the business needs. As such, an entrepreneur must be at a position to take all the risks necessary to ensure that the probable financial needs are available. For instance, an entrepreneur should take the risk by borrowing the required finance from financial institutions. The other strategy that may be employed by the entrepreneur includes seeking a merger with other firms to help pull resources together for the success of the business. An entrepreneur with such a risk-taking trait will easily come
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